Civil Space Guidelines
|| The National Aeronautics and Space Administration
is the lead agency for research and development in civil space activities.
|| NASA, in coordination with other departments
and agencies as appropriate, will focus its research and development
efforts in: space science to enhance knowledge of the solar system,
the universe, and fundamental natural and physical sciences; Earth
observation to better understand global change and the effect of natural
and human influences on the environment; human space flight to conduct
scientific, commercial, and exploration activities; and space technologies
and applications to develop new technologies in support of U.S. Government
needs and our economic competitiveness.
|| To enable these activities, NASA will:
|| Develop and operate the International
Space Station to support activities requiring the unique attributes
of humans in space and establish a permanent human presence
in Earth orbit. The International Space Station will support
future decisions on the feasibility and desirability of conducting
further human exploration activities.
|| Work with the private sector to
develop flight demonstrators that will support a decision by
the end of the decade on development of a next-generation reusable
|| Continue a strong commitment to
space science and Earth science programs. NASA will undertake:
|| a sustained program to support
a robotic presence on the surface of Mars by year 2000
for the purposes of scientific research, exploration and
|| a long-term program, using
innovative new technologies, to obtain in-situ measurements
and sample returns from the celestial bodies in the solar
|| a long-term program to identify
and characterize planetary bodies in orbit around other
|| a program of long-term observation,
research, and analysis of the Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere
and their interactions, including continual measurements
from the Earth Observing System by 1998.
||In carrying out these activities,
NASA will develop new and innovative space technologies and
smaller more capable spacecraft to improve the performance and
lower the cost of future space missions.
|| In the conduct of these research and development
programs, NASA will:
|| Ensure safety on all space flight
missions involving the Space Shuttle and the International Space
|| Emphasize flight programs that reduce
mission costs and development times by implementing innovative
procurement practices, validating new technologies and promoting
partnerships between government, industry, and academia.
|| Acquire spacecraft from the private
sector unless, as determined by the NASA Administrator, development
requires the unique technical capabilities of a NASA center.
|| Make use of relevant private sector
remote sensing capabilities, data, and information products
and establish a demonstration program to purchase data products
from the U.S. private sector.
|| Use competition and peer review
to select scientific investigators.
|| Seek to privatize or commercialize
its space communications operations no later than 2005.
||Examine with DoD, NOAA and other
appropriate federal agencies, the feasibility of consolidating
ground facilities and data communications systems that cannot
otherwise be provided by the private sector.
|| The Department of Commerce (DoC), through
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has the
lead responsibility for managing Federal space-based civil operational
Earth observations necessary to meet civil requirements. In this role,
the DoC, in coordination with other appropriate agencies, will:
|| acquire data, conduct research and
analyses, and make required predictions about the Earth's environment;
|| consolidate operational U.S. Government
civil requirements for data products, and define and operate
Earth observation systems in support of operational monitoring
|| in accordance with current policy
and Public Law 102-555 provide for the regulation and licensing
of the operation of private sector remote sensing systems.
|| The Department of the Interior, through
the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), will maintain a national archive
of land remote sensing data and other surface data as appropriate,
making such data available to U.S. Government and other users.
||The Department of Energy will maintain
the necessary capability to support civil space missions, including
research on space energy technologies and space radiation effects