The following paragraphs identify priority intersector guidance to support
major United States space policy objectives.
|| International Cooperation
The United States will pursue and conduct international cooperative
space-related activities that achieve scientific, foreign policy,
economic, or national security benefits for the nation. International
agreements related to space activities shall be subject to normal
interagency coordination procedures, consistent with applicable laws
and regulations. United States cooperation in international civil
space activities will:
|| Promote equitable cost-sharing and
yield benefits to the United States by increasing access to
foreign scientific and technological data and expertise and
foreign research and development facilities;
|| Enhance relations with U.S. allies
and Russia while supporting initiatives with other states of
the former Soviet Union and emerging spacefaring nations;
|| Support U.S. technology transfer
and nonproliferation objectives;
|| Create new opportunities for U.S.
commercial space activities; and
|| Protect the commercial value of
intellectual property developed with Federal support and ensure
that technology transfer resulting from cooperation do not undermine
U.S. competitiveness and national security.
||In support of these objectives:
|| NASA and the Department of
State will negotiate changes in the existing legal framework
for International Space Station cooperation to include
Russia in the program along with the United States, Europe,
Japan, and Canada; and
|| NASA, in coordination with
concerned U.S. Government agencies, will explore with
foreign space agencies and international organizations
the possible adoption of international standards for the
interoperability of civil research spacecraft communication
and control facilities.
|| Space Transportation
|| Assuring reliable and affordable
access to space through U.S. space transportation capabilities
is fundamental to achieving national space policy goals. Therefore,
the United States will:
|| Balance efforts to modernize
existing space transportation capabilities with the need
to invest in the development of improved future capabilities;
|| Maintain a strong transportation
capability and technology base to meet national needs
for space transport of personnel and payloads;
|| Promote reduction in the cost
of current space transportation systems while improving
their reliability, operability, responsiveness, and safety;
|| Foster technology development
and demonstration to support a future decision on the
development of next generation reusable space transportation
systems that greatly reduce the cost of access to space;
|| Encourage, to the fullest
extent feasible, the cost-effective use of commercially
provided U.S. products and services that meet mission
|| Foster the international competitiveness
of the U.S. commercial space transportation industry,
actively considering commercial needs and factoring them
into decisions on improvements to launch facilities and
|| The Department of Transportation
(DoT) is the lead agency within the Federal government for regulatory
guidance pertaining to commercial space transportation activities,
as set forth in 49 U.S.C. §701, et seq., and Executive
Order 12465. The U.S. Government encourages and will facilitate
U.S. private sector and state and local government space launch
and recovery activities.
|| All activities related to space
transportation undertaken by U.S. agencies and departments will
be consistent with PDD/NSTC-4.
|| Space-based Earth Observation
|| The United States requires a continuing
capability for space-based Earth observation to provide information
useful for protecting public health, safety, and national security.
Such a capability contributes to economic growth and stimulates
educational, scientific and technological advancement. The U.S.
|| Continue to develop and operate
space-based Earth observing systems, including satellites,
instruments, data management and dissemination activities;
|| Continue research and development
of advanced space-based Earth observation technologies
to improve the quality and reduce the costs of Earth observations;
|| Support the development of
U.S. commercial Earth observation capabilities by:
|| pursuing technology
development programs, including partnerships with
|| licensing the operation
and, as appropriate, the export of private Earth
observation systems and technologies, consistent
with existing policy;
|| providing U.S. Government
civil data to commercial firms on a non-discriminatory
basis to foster the growth of the "value-added"
data enhancement industry; and
|| making use, as appropriate,
of relevant private sector capabilities, data, and
information products in implementing this policy.
|| Produce and archive long-term
environmental data sets.
|| The U.S. Government will continue
to use Earth observation systems to collect environmental data
and provide all U.S. Government civil environmental data and
data products consistent with OMB Circular A-130, applicable
statute and guidelines contained in this directive.
|| The U.S. Government will seek mutually
beneficial cooperation with U.S. commercial and other national
and international Earth observation system developers and operators,
|| define an integrated global
observing strategy for civil applications;
|| develop U.S. Government civil
Earth observing systems in coordination with other national
and international systems to ensure the efficient collection
and dissemination of the widest possible set of environmental
|| obtain Earth observation data
from non-U.S. sources, and seek to make such data available
to users consistent with OMB Circular A-130, national
security requirements, and commercial sector guidance
contained in the national space policy; and
|| support, as appropriate, the
public, non-discriminatory direct read-out of data from
Federal civil systems.
|| The U.S. Government space sectors
will coordinate, and where feasible, seek to consolidate Earth
observation activities to reduce overlaps in development, measurements,
information processing, and archiving where cost-effective and
consistent with U.S. space goals.
|| In accordance with PDD/NSTC-2,
DoC/NOAA, DoD, and NASA shall establish a single, converged,
National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System
(NPOESS) to satisfy civil and national security requirements.
|| NASA, DoC/NOAA, DoD, the Intelligence
Community, and DoE shall work together to identify, develop,
demonstrate, and transition advanced technologies to U.S.
Earth observation satellite systems.
|| In accordance with PDD/NSTC-3,
NASA, DoC/NOAA, and DoI/USGS shall develop and operate
an ongoing program to measure the Earth's land surface
from space and ensure the continuity of the Landsat-type
|| Consistent with national security,
the U.S. Government space sectors shall continue to identify
national security products and services that can contribute
to global change research and civil environmental monitoring,
and seek to make technology, products and services available
to civil agencies for such uses. Both unclassified and,
as appropriate, classified data from national security
programs will be provided through established mechanisms.
|| Nonproliferation, Export Controls, and
|| The MTCR Guidelines are not designed
to impede national space programs or international cooperation
in such programs as long as such programs could not contribute
to delivery systems for weapons of mass destruction. Consistent
with U.S. nonproliferation policy, the United States will continue
to oppose missile programs of proliferation concern, and will
exercise particular restraint in missile-related cooperation.
The United States will continue to retain a strong presumption
of denial against exports of complete space launch vehicles
or other MTCR Category I components.
|| The United States will maintain
its general policy of not supporting the development or acquisition
of space launch vehicle systems in non-MTCR states.
|| For MTCR countries we will not encourage
new space launch vehicle programs which raise questions from
a proliferation and economic standpoint. The United States will,
however, consider exports of MTCR-controlled items to MTCR countries.
Additional safeguard measures could also be considered for such
exports, where appropriate. Any exports would remain subject
to the non-transfer provisions of the INF and START treaties.
|| The United States will work to stem
the flow of advanced space technology to unauthorized destinations.
Executive departments and agencies will be fully responsible
for protecting against adverse technology transfer in the conduct
of their programs.
|| In entering into space-related technology
development and transfer agreements with other countries, Executive
Departments and Agencies will take into consideration whether
such countries practice and encourage free and fair trade in
commercial space activities.
|| Arms Control
The United States will consider and, as appropriate, formulate policy
positions on arms control and related measures governing activities
in space, and will conclude agreements on such measures only if they
are equitable, effectively verifiable, and enhance the security of
the United States and our allies. The Arms Control and Disarmament
Agency (ACDA) is the principal agency within the Federal government
for arms control matters. ACDA, in coordination with the DoD, DCI,
State, DoE, and other appropriate Federal agencies, will identify
arms control issues and opportunities related to space activities
and examine concepts for measures that support national security objectives.
|| Space Nuclear Power
The Department of Energy will maintain the necessary capability to
support space missions which may require the use of space nuclear
power systems. U.S. Government agency proposals for international
cooperation involving space nuclear power systems are subject to normal
interagency review procedures. Space nuclear reactors will not be
used in Earth orbit without specific approval by the President or
his designee. Such requests for approval will take into account public
safety, economic considerations, international treaty obligations,
and U.S. national security and foreign policy interests. The Office
of Science and Technology Policy, in coordination with the NSC staff,
will examine the existing approval process, including measures to
address possible commercial use of space nuclear systems.
|| The United States will seek to minimize
the creation of space debris. NASA, the Intelligence Community,
and the DoD, in cooperation with the private sector, will develop
design guidelines for future government procurements of spacecraft,
launch vehicles, and services. The design and operation of space
tests, experiments and systems, will minimize or reduce accumulation
of space debris consistent with mission requirements and cost
|| It is in the interest of the U.S.
Government to ensure that space debris minimization practices
are applied by other spacefaring nations and international organizations.
The U.S. Government will take a leadership role in international
fora to adopt policies and practices aimed at debris minimization
and will cooperate internationally in the exchange of information
on debris research and the identification of debris mitigation
The price charged for the use of U.S. Government facilities, equipment,
and service, will be based on the following principles:
|| Prices charged to U.S. private sector,
state and local government space activities for the use of U.S.
Government facilities, equipment, and services will be based
on costs consistent with Federal guidelines, applicable statutes
and the commercial guidelines contained within the policy. The
U.S. Government will not seek to recover design and development
costs or investments associated with any existing facilities
or new facilities required to meet U.S. Government needs and
to which the U.S. Government retains title.
|| Consistent with mission requirements,
NASA and DoD will seek to use consistent pricing practices for
facilities, equipment, and services.
|| Tooling, equipment, and residual
hardware on hand at the completion of U.S. Government programs
will be priced and disposed of on a basis that is in the best
overall interest of the United States while not precluding or
deterring the continuing development of the U.S. commercial