Space Law TOP
Contents Intoroduction Preliminaries Chapter 1 Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Appendix Index

Chapter2. Organisation of Space Development

2-1. Priority Areas for the Development of Space

1. Promotion of Satellite Observation and Earth Science
Satellite observation is becoming increasingly important as a source of useful information for Earth science and as a means of resolving global environment problems.

To respond to social needs we will, therefore, develop and operate Earth observing satellites. As a part of this process, we will develop observing sensors, restructure the existing information networks, and reinforce the institutional structure for wide use of observation data.

In addition to these endeavors, we will try to establish a global Earth observation system through the coordination of observing satellites from various countries.
2. Promotion of Space Science and Lunar Exploration
We have received high praise from other countries for our efforts in space science. We will now make further efforts to promote astronomical observation and conduct scientific research on the solar system, planets, and asteroids. We will also accumulate scientific knowledge about the moon, including lunar exploration, to evaluate the possibility of exploitation of the moon.
3. Consolidating Space Activities
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), which will be attached to the International Space Station, is called an " Orbital Laboratory " . JEM is expected to play a central role in research activities both in space, and on the ground. An over- all research system will be established in association with the Laboratory in order to consolidate space activities .
4. The Sophistication of Satellite Generic Technology and Utilization
Japan has accumulated generic satellite technology by developing and operating its engineering test satellites. Japan will further develop these technologies as well as develop advanced satellite missions and equipment for telecommunication, broadcasting, and navigation.
5. Development and Operation of New Infrastructure for Space
New space infrastructure necessary for our space activities, such as systems and facilities, will be developed and operated. For example, the following projects will be undertaken:

The Advanced H-II launch vehicle (H- IIA) will be designed to be both economical and to adapt to growing demands for launching different satellite missions
  HOPE- Xwill be designed to establish the main technologies for a reusable transportation vehicle capable of drastically reducting transportation costs.
  Data Relay Test Satellite (DRTS) system will be designed to ensure effective transmission of Earth observation and experimental data

2-2. Space Activities in Individual Fields

1. Satellite Observation and Earth Science
Satellite observation and Earth science contribute to our understanding of many areas, including weather forecasting, climate change prediction, monitoring oceanic phenomena, geology, resources exploration, vegetation, agricultural products , and the oceanic ecosystem. They also provide basic knowledge about how to cope with global environmental issues (global warming, ozone layer depletion, etc.) and natural disasters (earthquake, volcanic eruption, etc.). As a result, it is important to expand the activities in this field.

(1) Series of Earth Observation Satellites
A series of Earth observation satellites will be developed and operated in a way to efficiently meet users' needs at home and abroad, and to maintain harmony with other countries' observation and research projects. This will be done through a collaboration by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA, a development and implementing agency), as well as universities, national research institutes, the private sector, and government agencies. The Earth observation satellite series consists of two categories: atmospheric and oceanic observation satellites and land observation satellites.

The development/implementing agency and user organizations, will co-operate to improve sensor precision and resolution, and to develop a new sensors. Aircraft, the JEM, and satellites will be used, if necessary, to ensure effective implementation of new sensor developments.

Meteorological satellites will be launched and operated continuously to provide regular observation data.

(2) Use of Observation Data
To improve the use of observational data from Japanese and foreign earth observation satellites, work to verify data validity, standardize data quality and format, and create data processing and analytical software, will be pursued. At the same time, ground stations and an information network for users will be established.
The development and implementing agency and the user organizations will make joint efforts to reinforce the institutional framework for data use, by using the existing systems for cooperative research and for inviting researchers.

(3) Global Earth Observation System
Japan will try to play a proper role in establishing a global earth observation system, in harmony with the earth observing satellites of other countries and through positive international consultation and coordination.
2. Space Science
Space science is expected to play an important role in investigating the Earth and solar systems, astrophysics, the evolution of the solar system, and the evolution and structure of the universe. As one of the leading nations in this field, we consider it important for Japan to seek international cooperation and expand our activities in the future.

(1) Series of Medium- Size Science Satellites and Space Probes
The medium- size science satellites and space probes will be developed and launched by the M- V rocket about once a year. By using these satellites, science exploration of the near earth space, the moon and asteroids and of the solar system will be conducted together with astronomical observation on wider wavelengths, in conjuction with observation from the Earth.

(2) Large Science Satellites and Space Probes
Scientific research and astronomical observation of the sun and planets will be conducted using a large satellite and a space probe, launched either by the H-II launch vehicle or through international collaboration.
3. Moon Exploration
As the moon is the closest and most familiar celestial body, exploration of the moon is a first step in extending our space activities beyond the Earth. It is important to accumulate scientific knowledge about the moon, and survey its topography, geology, and mineral composition and mass distribution.

(1) Unmanned Exploration
NASDA and the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), in cooperation with other agencies , will conduct an unmanned lunar exploration project including the development of a lunar orbiting satellite and a lunar landing vehicle. Project planning will take into account and international aspects of the venture as well as progress in technology.

(2) Scientific Observation and Exploration from the Moon
Keeping other countries' Lunar programs in mind, the National Astronomical Observatory, ISAS, and NASDA will jointly promote research and development of observation technology and lunar infrastructure technology. This will be done for future moon projects such as international lunar observatory and a long-term lunar mission.
4. Communication, Broadcasting, and Navigation
In the fields of satellite communication, broadcasting, and navigation, we will deal with growing sophistication and diversification of social needs. It is also important to develop high-risk technology, requiring verification through a series of mission demonstration satellites (described later). This fits in with international trends and with Japan's contribution to the advancement of a future global information and communication system.

(1) Communication
Development of personal satellite-based mobile communications will be promoted to help strengthen our communication infrastructure. Advanced satellite communication technology, such as gigabit-class, ultra high-speed satellite communication technology, millimeter-wave or laser satellite communication technology, will be developed with the aim of establishing an international high-speed satellite communication network.

(2) Broadcasting
Digital and high precision broadcasting, satellite broadcasting technology related to mobile digital multimedia broadcasting and new broad-bandwidth satellite broadcasting will be developed.

(3) Navigation
The GPS navigation satellites launched by the U.S. is used by ships and cars, and as a research tool for determining causes of earthquakes and volcanic activity as well as for measurement required for public use. In order to cope with the growing sophistication and diversification of needs in our country, we will develop elementary technology for navigation systems, to improve precision. We will also develop new navigation technologies associated with communications.

(4) The Aviation
A satellite will be launched and operated to ensure safety and efficiency of air traffic control.
5. The Use of Space
Space is characterized by microgravity and high vacuum. Research on how to use those characteristics will contribute significantly to scientific knowledge and to creating key technologies for new industries.

In particular, the Japanese Experiment Module JEM) which is an " orbital laboratory ", will provide useful research opportunities .

In addition, we should pursue research on uses of space in various ways including international cooperation, orbital experiments, and joint research projects on the ground among NASDA, universities, and national research laboratories.

(1) Space Experiments
In addition to promoting JEM's development and operation, we will perform space experiments using drop towers, aircraft, small rockets, recoverable capsules, and the US Space Shuttle, choosing the facility according to the experiment's characteristics . We will also develop experimental equipment and technology, such as unmanned space experiment systems, to meet various demands for space utilization.

(2) Research System
With a view to ensuring wide use of results from future space projects, it is important that we enhance the research system so that researchers from universities, national research institutes, and the private sector can participate.

In this sense, NASDA, universities, the national research laboratories, and the private sector will promote joint research projects. NASDA will make use of the personnel exchange program to play a leading role in this field.

NASDA will also promote effective and wide use of the research system by strengthening the existing support system. At the same time, we will work to ensure safety of on-board equipment, construction of a database for research results, and establishment of an information network for research.
6. Manned Space Activities
Manned space missions have significant implications for exploring the possible expansion of human activities , acquiring new scientific knowledge and pursuing the effective use of space. It is, therefore, meaningful to promote manned space flight.

(1) Manned Space Technology
Experience and expertise in crew selection, training, and healthcare will be accumulated through JEM's development and operation, as well as the use of US Space Shuttle. The Technology for intravehicular activity, extravehicular activity, and manned space systems, including safety and reliability, will also be acquired.

(2) Space Medical Science
Research on the calcium depletion of human bone, and on the radiation effects of stays in space will be expanded.

Moreover we will endeavor to study the closed ecosystem necessary for man to live in space, to acquire basic technology related to manned space activities, and to train personnel for the job.
7. Basic Satellites Technology
We have accumulated the basic technologies common to all satellites . We now feel it will be necessary to look forward and develop technology to cater for the growing sophistication and diversification of demand.

(1) Mission Demonstration Satellites Series
It is necessary to develop mission equipment, including earth observation sensors, with a view to familiarizing the public with the use of space. For the development of communications , broadcasting, and navigation, we must reduce technological risks by using operational satellites to verify technology.

As a matter of fact, some mission equipment and space missions have been verified using the Engineering Test Satellites (ETS)series. This verification work will now involve developing a new series of the mission demonstration satellites. Implementing the new series will require cooperation between NASDA, the government agencies, universities, national research laboratories, and the private sector, including making satellite development cheaper and easier by adopting a common satellite bus . We are now also discussing the introduction of announcement of opportunities (AOs).

(2) Engineering Test Satellites (ETS) Series
We will emphasize further development and efficiently responce to more sophisticated and diversified needs in future satellites. With this in mind, we will use the ETS series to develop generic technologies, such as platform satellite technology and rendezvous-docking technology.

By developing the ETS series, we will acquire basic satellite technologies such as on-board equipment miniaturization, Iight-weight materials, and power reduction and conservation. In addition, we will be able to improve the reliability of electronic and mechanical devices, as well as the performance of on-board software.

(3) Satellite Bus Technology
We have several different kinds of satellite bus in Japan. We will now reduce development risks and cost of the mission demonstration satellites and the earth observing satellites by adopting a common satellite bus . Furthermore, element devices for satellite buses will be standardized and designed for easy conversion into general use.
8. Space Infrastructure
To expand and advance space activities, we must strengthen and restructure space infrastructure. A robust space transportation system is a one fundamental factor for ensuring unrestricted expansion of our own space activities. We must therefore utilize all of our accumulated technology to construct such a system.
(1) Transportation System
(i) M launch vehicle
To advance our space science, which has been highly praised by other countries, we will develop and upgrade the M-V launch vehicle. We intend to use this vehicle to launch medium-size science satellites and space probe projects.

(ii) H-II launch vehicle
The H-II launch vehicle will be able to adapt to launch demands, through continuous efforts to upgrade and improve its reliability. Such efforts will allow an advanced H-II launch vehicle (H-II A) to launch a 20-ton payload into low Earth orbit (or a 4-ton payload into geostationary orbit) with a potentially major cost reductions. This vehicle will be developed to meet various needs in the 2lst century, including access to the space station.

(iii) Small payload launch vehicle
Small launch vehicles including the J-I launch vehicle , will be developed to launch small satellites.

(iv) HOPE-X
HOPE-X will be developed to perform flight experiments as a part of reusable transportation system, which should drastically reduce transportation costs. HOPE-X will establish major technologies for an unmanned, winged space plane and enable us to accumulate technology for a future study of reusable transportation systems .

(v) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV)
We will develop and operate the HTV with rendezvous and docking functions to prepare for the task of supplying logistics to the space station.

(vi) Future Transportation System
In order to meet future transportation demands we will require, a reusable transportation system with an innovative design. The system will also be necessary to drastically reduce transportation costs and protect the space environment . Based upon the results of H-II A and HOPE-X development projects, we will initiate a study for a reusable transportation vehicle including an unmanned winged space plane. We will also start, if necessary, its development, taking into consideration both international and demand trends. Later we will also start research into a fully reusable aerospace plane (space plane) with the capacity of horizontal take-off and landing, in cooperation with the related research institutes.

A study for a manned space plane will also be started as part of the preparation for manned space activities. Another study for an orbit transfer vehicle, capable of moving from one orbit to another, will be initiated to prepare for moon exploration.
(2) On-Orbit System
(i) Unmanned System
To help implement space experiments, we will develop a platform type satellite in low-and-medium altitude Earth orbits. In implementating this project, the possibility of international cooperation should be considered. After the platform type satellite is developed and operated, an orbital service vehicle will be required. So, proper coordination for these two projects is important.

(ii) Manned System
Based upon the experience and know-how obtained from the development and operation of the JEM, research work will begin on improved and more economical manned systems.
(3) Support System
(i) Modification of Launch Site and Landing Field
Due to the complexity and expansion of space activities, the launch site for the H-II A will be modified, and a new landing field for HOPE-X will be prepared.
It may be necessary to formulate a new policy for managing and operating the launch pads, since expanded demand for satellite launches has been forecast for the 2lst century, together with considerable space development. Necessary measures will be discussed, taking into account the issues of safety and organizing international cooperation.

(ii) Data Relay and Tracking Satellite System
The Data Relay and Test Satellite System (DRTS) will be developed to transmit a large amount of observational data and experimental data from satellites in low and medium Earth orbit to ground stations, and to provide regular tracking and control services for those satellites. The technology for intersatellite laser communications technology, which is regarded a component of future tracking and control systems, will be investigated in orbit. Automation and autonomy will be developed to further improve tracking and control system.

(iii) Monitoring Space Debris
In order to support manned space activities, as well as expanded and more sophisticated unmanned space activities, we will conduct research on space debris monitoring systems , and space weather forecasting systems in order to predict space radiation. In addition, large volume data transmission systems will be studied in order to strengthen the space information and communication infrastructure.

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