Space Law TOP
Contents Intoroduction Preliminaries Chapter 1 Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Appendix Index

Chapter3. Institutional Structure of Space Development

It is important to co-ordinate Japan's space development and utilization activities with one body, and increasing their efficiency by devising a definite plan. In this context, NASDA and ISAS, Japan's space development and implementing agencies, will be consolidated. This move will enhance their technological ability, and their cooperative relations with other organizations, and improve the efficient development of space.

There is also a growing need to improve cooperation between space science and practical space application. Closer and more efficient relations between NASDA and ISAS, which play leading roles in their own fields, will be ensured in the fields of moon exploration, space environment utilization, and others.

(1) The Space Activities Commission will be given more power to formulate important policies, to coordinate different policies presented by relevant government agencies, and to evaluate new or on-going space projects.
The administration of the government agencies will also be improved.
(2) Research into satellites (including the space station) is performed by user agencies and NASDA, based upon requests from user agencies circumstances. NASDA is responsible for projects in the "development" phase. However, development of mission devices like observation sensors and element devices related to the satellite bus may be also performed by users, if the users wish to and have the necessary technological competence. NASDA will, not only upgrade its technological capacity to meet relevant agencies' requests, but also strengthen its institutional systems including the research system open to other institutes.

These development agencies will keep in mind the importance of ensuring healthy development of our satellite manufacturing industry. They will also make efforts to shorten the development period, reduce its cost, simplify project management methods, and diffuse results obtained by their development methods .

On the other hand, satellite development in space science will be performed in principle by ISAS since such development is closely related to space research activity. The development system in this field will be strengthened, to attain the most advanced scientific objectives.
(3) The development of the satellite launch vehicle will be conducted by NASDA. NASDA will increase its technological abilities and improve its ability to meet other agencies' requests.

ISAS will continue to develop the M-V launch vehicle, one of the M series launch vehicles , while paying due attention to the suitability of the launch site at its Kagoshima Space Center, and to its ability to develop all stages of a solid fuel rocket.

Since it is appropriate to make use of NASDA's rockets for space science missions, large science missions beyond the capacity of the M-V rocket apart from international missions will be launched by NASDA's rockets. NASDA's rockets are the most valuable space transportation systems in Japan.
(4) NASDA and the user agencies, jointly or individually, will expand the use of Earth observation systems and Earth sciences, and upgrade their applications.

Universities, national laboratories, and private bodies will take a broader approach to the use of space. At the same time, NASDA will take either tackle the field jointly with those institutes, or on its own. With a view to ensuring more efficient and wider use of JEM, NASDA will also reinforce its supporting systems to meet researchers' needs .
(5) NASDA will provide tracking services to determine satellite orbits. When users have tracking and control facilities for their satellites or deep space probes, it is important to ensure those facilities keep in close contact with NASDA's facilities. Better communication systems centering on NASDA will be established for this kind of tracking activity.

Orbital satellite control services will be performed by the satellite operator. However, if the operator has no proper means to control the satellite, the tracking and control services will be provided by NASDA.
(6) The national laboratories and research institutes working on space development will promote their research on satellites, rockets, and so on, as well as related development and application technologies. Simultaneously, these institutes will cooperate with the development efforts of NASDA, and will refurbish their facilities for this purpose. Special research programs of these institutes will be strengthened.
(7) Universities (including ISAS) will be expected to conduct research using satellites, rockets and so on, and to cooperate with NASDA's development work.
(8) In light of the growing important role of the private sector for space development, R & D facilities and research personnel in the private sector are to upgrade their technological capacity and to take part in government projects. In particular, space manufacturers and users will be expected to enhance their technological base, with a view to future commercial launch services, improved satellite development and manufacturing, and effective use of space.

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