| (1) On The Priority Of Russian Federation Space Policy
(27 April, 1993)|
For over 30 years space science in our country
has served the interests of the state. Without it, communications and
television broadcasting, navigation and meteorology, surveying and cartography,
and many other sectors of the national economy would be inconceivable. Space
technologies are something no progressive power can do without. It is hard to
overestimate the importance of space systems in maintaining the country's
Realizing its responsibility for preserving
Russia's space potential and the extensive application of this potential in
resolving the pressing problems of citizens and society as a whole, the Russian
Federation Supreme Soviet considers it necessary to state the priorities of
space policy which are to be enshrined in Russian Federation legislation and
consistently implemented in the day-to-day practice of the state administration
of space activity.
Space activity in the Russian Federation is
to be implemented with a view to ensuring the prosperity of citizens, the
development of the Russian Federation, the strengthening of its security, and
also resolving the global problems of humanity.
Russian space science should ensure:
the equal right of Russian Federation
enterprises, organizations, and citizens to participate in space activity and
enjoy its results;
access to information about space activity;
restriction of monopolies and the
development of entrepreneurial activity;
independent expert analysis of space
projects and programs;
safety in space activity, including the
protection of the environment.
Russia's federal space program is being
organized in line with the requirements and economic resources of society and
National economic space projects should be
designed to tackle tasks with the greatest socioeconomic impact, primarily in
the development of networks for receiving, processing, and transmitting
information, communications, television broadcasting, environmental monitoring,
and studying natural resources.
Work of an exploratory nature enabling
fundamentally new tasks to be set and tackled, and also applied work
commissioned by specific consumers, should be given priority in scientific
Space activity for military purposes should be
concentrated primarily on the use of space systems for military command and
control, communications, intelligence, and other types of backup for the Armed
Structural transformations in space science
are to be implemented taking into account the specific features of space science
and industry and include the flotation and privatization of profitable
production facilities. At the same time unique testing [stendovyy] equipment,
and also space infrastructure installations with state significance, should
remain within state ownership and be made available for use by interested
enterprises and organizations.
During the economic reforms it is extremely
important not to forfeit the intellectual property of enterprises,
organizations, and citizens by taking part in space hardware and space
The specific features of space activity—the
intermingling of science and production, the protracted investment cycle and
high degree of commercial risk, the difficulty of obtaining a direct return on
invested capital, and the close link between domestic and foreign
capital—require special economic approaches. Taking world experience into
account, it is necessary to formulate a special system for granting loans to,
levying taxes on, and offering state guarantees to enterprises and
organizations working on space projects.
Strengthening Russia's positions in the world
space market presupposes attracting foreign investment backed up by appropriate
state guarantees, and also guarantees employing funds from the Russian
enterprises and organizations concerned.
The Russian Federation Supreme Soviet
favors cooperation in opening up space with CIS member countries and the
preservation and development of established scientific and production ties.
Further steps must be taken to implement the Minsk Agreement on Joint Action To
Study and Exploit Space, primarily as regards mechanisms for adopting mutually
advantageous interstate space projects and their shared financing by the
states, enterprises, and organizations concerned.
In issues of international relations
connected with space activity, state policy is designed to support domestic
enterprises and organizations, deepen international cooperation and integration
in opening up space on a mutually advantageous basis, and ensure the fulfillment
of Russia's obligations under international agreements.