Space Law TOP
Contents Intoroduction Preliminaries Chapter 1 Chapter 2
Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Appendix Index

Annex: Pricing Comparability Factors for GEO and GTO commercial Space Launch Services

The Parties agree to the following factors as being relevant to the comparison or evaluation of commercial launch services offered in the international market for launches to geosynchronous earth orbit or geosynchronous transfer orbit. Such factors can often explain legitimate distinctions in the price offered for the launch of a particular payload by different launch providers, and are particularly useful in comparing bids from market economy providers to those from economy-in-transition providers of commercial space launch services.

Comparability Factor


Intended Orbit

Based on delivery orbit for launch provider, and the provider of perigee kick motor (PKM)

Risk Management

Addresses potential differences in insurance for customer, based on vehicle and scheduling reliability (and the different forms of risk management, such as political risk insurance)

Additional Costs

- Integration Costs, Addresses different types of payload/vehicle integration costs, and software/hardware modifications necessary for the mission

Required Vehicle Lift Capability

Ensures comparison of vehicle classes providing similar performance that are adequate to place the payload into the desired orbit

Payment Conditions/Terms

Relates to various payment and financial conditions or incentives that may be offered as part of a commercial space launch services bid (governed by the provisions of any relevant trade agreements and OECD guidelines)


Addresses impacts of different satellite lifetimes (on orbit) resulting from the commercial space launch services (this is not always a factor - the impact varies depending on case in question)

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