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Article 28 Withdrawal

1. Any Partner State may withdraw from this Agreement at any time by giving to the Depositary at least one year's prior written notice. Withdrawal by a European Partner State shall not affect the rights and obligations of the European Partner under this Agreement.
2. If a Partner gives notice of withdrawal from this Agreement, with a view toward ensuring the continuation of the overall program, the Partners shall endeavor to reach agreement concerning the terms and conditions of that partner's withdrawal before the effective date of withdrawal.
(a) Because Canada's contribution is an essential part of the Space Station, upon its withdrawal, Canada shall ensure the effective use and operation by the United States of the Canadian elements listed in the Annex. To this end, Canada shall expeditiously provide hardware, drawing, documentation, software, spares, tooling, special test equipment, and/or any other necessary items requested by the United States.
(b) Upon Canada's notice of withdrawal for any reason, the United States and Canada shall expeditiously negotiate a withdrawal agreement. Assuming that such agreement provides for the transfer to the United States of those elements required for the continuation of the overall program, it shall also provide for the United States to give Canada adequate compensation for such transfer.
4. If a Partner gives notice of withdrawal from this Agreement, its Cooperating Agency shall be deemed to have withdrawn from its corresponding MOU with NASA, effective from the same date as its withdrawal from this Agreement.
5. Withdrawal by any Partner State shall not affect that partner State's continuing rights and obligations under Articles 16, 17, and 19, unless otherwise agreed in a withdrawal agreement pursuant to paragraph 2 or 3 above.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Government, have signed this Agreement.

DONE at, this day of, 1988. The texts of this Agreement in the English, French, German, Italian, Japanese, and Russian languages shall be equally authentic. A single original text in each language shall be deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States. The Depositary shall transmit certified copies to all signatory States. Upon entry into force of this Agreement, the Depositary shall register it pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.

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